Catholics not in communion with Rome, or Breakaway Catholics, are those religious groups that, while consciously embracing Catholic tradition, have chosen to separate from the Roman Catholic Church. They differ from Protestantism in that they practice rites, rituals and devotions specific to Catholicism and do not reject a Catholic identity. Their decision to follow a separate hierarchy most often stems from a perception on their part of a need to do so caused by a failure in the institution of the church. These groups can be grouped into a number of categories:
A number of Traditionalist Catholic groups, who have advocated for a restoration of many or all of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentations of Catholic teachings which prevailed in the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council, have left the Roman Catholic Church and begun their own religious organizations. Most of these schismatic Traditionalist Catholics belong to the Latin Rite, although some groups are part of the Byzantine Rite.
The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination that split from the Holy See in the 1870s because they disagreed with the solemn declaration of the doctrine of papal infallibility promulgated by the First Vatican Council (1869?1870). The Old Catholic Church holds close to ideas of ecclesiastical liberalism (Liberal Christianity). The Church is not in communion with the Holy See, though the Union of Utrecht of Old Catholic Churches is in full communion with the Anglican Communion.
Some groups such as the Polish National Catholic Church arose as a result of grievances relating to the second-class status of immigrant Polish Catholics by the American Irish and German dominated church hierarchy. Ethnic grievances still play a role in the church today as in the case of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish in St. Louis, Missouri.
In 1534, King Henry VIII of England, who had previously been awarded the title "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope, signed into law the Act of Supremacy, placing the ecclesiastical governance of the Catholic Church in England (Ecclesia Anglicana), under his own jurisdiction in order to grant himself an annulment from his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, establishing the independence of the Church of England from the See of Rome. Since the English Reformation the English Church, known as the Ecclesia Anglicana or Church of England, has experienced various other reforms over the centuries, all the while maintaining its via media character as established by the Elizabethan Settlement of 1558, wherein the church was understood to be both Catholic and Reformed.
List of breakaway churches
The Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (Dutch: Oud-Katholieke Kerk van Nederland) is the mother church of the Old Catholic Churches. It is sometimes called the Ancient Catholic Church, the Church of Utrecht (Ultrajectine Church) or the Dutch Roman Catholic Church of the Old Episcopal Order. In the past, Roman Catholic, especially Jesuit, critics tended to call it the "Jansenist Church of Holland".
St. Willibrord evangelised the Northern parts of the Netherlands (above the Rhine), bringing Catholicism to the country, in the 7th century. The southern parts of the now so calledBenelux were already evangelised from the 4th century, beginning with St. Servatius, bishop of Maastricht (†384). Willibrord had been consecrated by Pope Sergius I in 696 inRome. In 1145 Pope Eugene III granted the cathedral chapter of Utrecht the right to elect bishops, after such had been requested by the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and Bishop Heribert of Utrecht. The Fourth Lateran Council confirmed this in 1215. Pope Leo X issued the papal bull Debitum Pastoralis in 1520 giving extraordinary powers to Philip of Burgundy, 57th Bishop of Utrecht, essentially removing the ability of any external authority to "in the first instance, have his cause evoked to any external tribunal, not even under pretense of any apostolic letters whatever; and that all such proceedings should be, ipso facto, null and void".Reformation and Jansenism[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
Forced into hiding as a result of the Protestant Reformation, the diocesan structures of the Roman Catholic Church of the Netherlands were dissolved. The popes appointedapostolic vicars at Utrecht. Eventually, the church obtained a comfortable enough status with the local authorities so as to allow it to practice Catholicism as long as this did not take place in public or semi-public buildings and areas. However, conflicts arose between Jesuit missionaries sent from Rome and the local clergy. This was augmented by an influx of Jansenist priests from France and Belgium. The Jesuits accused the Apostolic Vicar, Petrus Codde, of favouring Jansenism. Pope Innocent XII appointed a commission of cardinals who started an investigation of Codde, ending in exoneration. In 1700 Archbishop Codde was summoned to Rome and brought before a second commission appointed by Pope Clement XI. When he refused to sign the anti-Jansenist formula of Pope Alexander VII, Clement XI suspended Codde in 1701 and appointed a successor, Gerard Potcamp (nl), as Apostolic Vicar. This decision was not popular among the Dutch clergy, who demanded the return of Codde, and the refusal to accept his successor by a large part of the clergy. Codde returned to Utrecht in June 1703 and formally resigned — protesting the circumstances — in a pastoral letter of March 19, 1704. He died on December 18, 1710.
Lacking an archbishop in partibus infidelium, the Dutch Church was able to arrange for an Irish bishop, Luke Fagan, Bishop of Meath (later Archbishop of Dublin), to ordain priests for the see of Utrecht. The canonical matters arising from the supposed Roman violations of Debitum Pastoralis led to the case being brought before the Pontifical Roman Catholic University of Leuven (Southern Brabant) in May 1717, which found in favour of Utrecht, but was unable to resolve the matter with Rome; this led to a de facto autonomous Catholic church in the Netherlands. Finally in 1723 dissatisfied Dutch clergy elected Cornelius van Steenoven as Archbishop of Utrecht. He was consecrated (without a papal mandate) by Dominique Marie Varlet, who was visiting the Netherlands and who had been appointed by the pope as Coadjutor Bishop of Babylon and consecrated in Paris on 19 February 1719 by Jacques de Goyon Matignon, Bishop Emeritus of Condom. Varlet also agreed to confirm children and to support the Dutch clergy, as he was sympathetic to their position. Both consecrator and consecrated incurred the penalty of suspension for illicit episcopal consecration, and that of excommunication for claiming a diocesan see of jurisdiction without the permission of the Roman Pontiff. Bishop Varlet was later reconciled to Rome, even though he subsequently consecrated four bishops for the independent Ultrajectine church, which would become known as "Old Catholic" after 1853. Van Steenoven after his consecration autonomously, and from the Roman view point illegitimately, appointed bishops to the vacant Dutch sees of Deventer, Haarlem and Groningen.
Most Dutch Catholics nevertheless continued to follow the pope and accepted his newly appointed apostolic vicars at Brussels as well as the later official Roman Catholic hierarchy established in 1853, when Catholicism was allowed in the public sphere again after two and a half centuries of secret and private religious worship.Vatican I[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
After Pope Pius IX re-established a Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands in 1853, the breakaway Church of Utrecht adopted the name "Old Catholic Church" to distinguish itself from the newly created Roman hierarchy by its seniority in the Netherlands. In 1870 the First Vatican Council was convened, and the bishops of the Church of Utrecht were not invited because they were not seen as being in communion with the Holy See. At the First Vatican Council, papal primacy in jurisdiction and the dogma of papal infallibility were defined, to the objection of the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht and some communities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Several separate communities were formed at this time and sought apostolic succession from the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, thus leading to the formation of the Utrecht Union of Churches, and the final adoption of the name "Old Catholic" by these German speaking communities. The schism was thus able to continue.Doctrine
Perhaps the most fundamental positions of the Old Catholic Church are its claim to apostolic succession and to being legally separate from the Roman Catholic Church.
The churches of the Union of Utrecht have been in communion with the Church of England since 1931. The Polish National Catholic Church was part of the Union and also in communion with the Episcopal Church in the United States. The PNCC left the Union of Utrecht and broke communion with the Episcopal Church over the issues of the ordination of women and openly gay clergy.
Old Catholics have celebrated Mass in the vernacular virtually since their foundation, even if not everywhere, doing so as early as the 18th century in Utrecht. They reject the Roman Catholic dogmas of the Immaculate Conception and Assumption of Mary as well as papal infallibility. Their practice of private confession has fallen into disuse in most areas. Since 1878 Old Catholic clergy have been allowed to marry at any time. It would also seem that, by the beginning of the 20th century, the Eucharistic fast had been abandoned, along with Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and the veneration of the saints: in his declaration of ecclesial independence of December 29, 1910 Arnold Harris Mathew wrote to the Old Catholics of Utrecht deploring the lack of these practices amongst Old Catholics on the European continent.
The main bodies of the Old Catholics are theologically progressive. The Dutch Old Catholics since 1998 have allowed women to enter the priesthood and, for a long time, have allowed divorce. Since the beginning of the 20th century, some Roman Catholic priests who have been unable to accept certain Roman Catholic disciplines or doctrines have joined the Old Catholic Church, often in order to marry.
Whilst the vernacular was introduced at a very early stage, external rites remained very Catholic, and the prayers of the Mass still emphasized sacrificial intention. Although distinct from the Roman Catholic Church, since the 1960s most Old Catholics in communion with Utrecht have followed the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council which met periodically from 1962 to 1965.Old Catholic Archbishops of Utrecht[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
The Metropolitan Archbishop of Utrecht (not to be confused with the Roman Catholic prelate who holds the same title) is the leader of the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands, and chairman of its governing bodies. He is also ex officio the Primate (primus inter pares leader) of the entire Old Catholic Church. The current Archbishop is Joris Vercammen, a former Roman Catholic, and a prominent churchman who serves on the central committee of the World Council of Churches. Individual national or regional Old Catholic churches maintain a degree of autonomy, similar to the practice of the Anglican Communion, so that each diocese of the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht has a diocesan bishop, and countries with more than one diocese have a bishop who is appointed 'bishop in charge' (or similar title). All, however, recognise the Archbishop of Utrecht as Primate.
- Cornelius van Steenoven (1723–25)
- Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers (1725–33)
- Theodorus van der Croon (1734–39)
- Petrus Johannes Meindaerts (1739–67)
- Walter van Nieuwenhuisen (1768–97)
- Johannes Jacobus van Rhijn (1797–1808)
- Willibrord van Os (1814–25)
- Johannes van Santen (1825–58)
- Henricus Loos (1858–73)
- Johannes Heijkamp (1875–92)
- Gerardus Gul (1892–1920)
- Franciscus Kenninck (1920–37)
- Andreas Rinkel (1937–70)
- Marinus Kok (1970–82)
- Antonius Jan Glazemaker (1982–2000)
- Joris August Odilius Ludovicus Vercammen (2000–pres.)
Links to Independent Catholic Churches and/or Jurisdictions*
American Catholic Church in the United States
American National Catholic Church
Independent Catholic Church of North America
Independent Old Catholic Church of America
List of Independent Catholic Jurisdictions
List of Independent Catholic Churches by State
Links to Independent Catholic Seminaries*
Independent Catholic Seminaries
Advent Independent Catholic Seminary
Agape of Jesus Seminary
Ave Maria School of Divinity
Independent Catholic Seminaries
Northwestern Theological Seminary
Seminary of St. Bonaventure
Sophia Divinity School
St Mary Jerusalem Catholic Seminary
St James the Elder Theological Seminary
St John the Beloved Seminary
St John XXIII Theological Institute
St Mary’s Independent Catholic Seminary
St. Mary Theological School
Miscellaneous Information on Inclusive Churches*
*This is a random short list – for more, visit Google and type the appropriate search words
“Who Are the Independent Catholics?”, Plummer, John P., Mabry, John R., Copyright (c) 2006, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley, CA.
“The Many Paths of the Independent Sacramental Movement“, Plummer, John P., Copyright (c) 2006, Newt Books, Dallas, TX.